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As James wrote, "the perception of bodily changes, as they occur, is the emotion. An example of this theory in action would be as follows: An emotion-evoking stimulus snake triggers a pattern of physiological response increased heart rate, faster breathing, etc.
This theory is supported by experiments in which by manipulating the bodily state induces a desired emotional state. Although mostly abandoned in its original form, Tim Dalgleish argues that most contemporary neuroscientists have embraced the components of the James-Lange theory of emotions.
The James—Lange theory has remained influential. Its main contribution is the emphasis it places on the embodiment of emotions, especially the argument that changes in the bodily concomitants of emotions can alter their experienced intensity.
Most contemporary neuroscientists would endorse a modified James—Lange view in which bodily feedback modulates the experience of emotion.
Walter Bradford Cannon agreed that physiological responses played a crucial role in emotions, but did not believe that physiological responses alone could explain subjective emotional experiences.
He argued that physiological responses were too slow and often imperceptible and this could not account for the relatively rapid and intense subjective awareness of emotion.
An emotion-evoking event snake triggers simultaneously both a physiological response and a conscious experience of an emotion. Phillip Bard contributed to the theory with his work on animals.
Bard found that sensory, motor, and physiological information all had to pass through the diencephalon particularly the thalamus , before being subjected to any further processing.
Therefore, Cannon also argued that it was not anatomically possible for sensory events to trigger a physiological response prior to triggering conscious awareness and emotional stimuli had to trigger both physiological and experiential aspects of emotion simultaneously.
Schachter did agree that physiological reactions played a big role in emotions. He suggested that physiological reactions contributed to emotional experience by facilitating a focused cognitive appraisal of a given physiologically arousing event and that this appraisal was what defined the subjective emotional experience.
Emotions were thus a result of two-stage process: For example, the physiological arousal, heart pounding, in a response to an evoking stimulus, the sight of a bear in the kitchen.
The brain then quickly scans the area, to explain the pounding, and notices the bear. Consequently, the brain interprets the pounding heart as being the result of fearing the bear.
Subjects were observed to express either anger or amusement depending on whether another person in the situation a confederate displayed that emotion.
With the two-factor theory now incorporating cognition, several theories began to argue that cognitive activity in the form of judgments, evaluations, or thoughts were entirely necessary for an emotion to occur.
One of the main proponents of this view was Richard Lazarus who argued that emotions must have some cognitive intentionality.
The cognitive activity involved in the interpretation of an emotional context may be conscious or unconscious and may or may not take the form of conceptual processing.
Lazarus stressed that the quality and intensity of emotions are controlled through cognitive processes.
These processes underline coping strategies that form the emotional reaction by altering the relationship between the person and the environment.
George Mandler provided an extensive theoretical and empirical discussion of emotion as influenced by cognition, consciousness, and the autonomic nervous system in two books Mind and Emotion, , and Mind and Body: Psychology of Emotion and Stress, There are some theories on emotions arguing that cognitive activity in the form of judgments, evaluations, or thoughts are necessary in order for an emotion to occur.
A prominent philosophical exponent is Robert C. Solomon claims that emotions are judgments. The theory proposed by Nico Frijda where appraisal leads to action tendencies is another example.
It has also been suggested that emotions affect heuristics, feelings and gut-feeling reactions are often used as shortcuts to process information and influence behavior.
Theories dealing with perception either use one or multiples perceptions in order to find an emotion Goldie, A recent hybrid of the somatic and cognitive theories of emotion is the perceptual theory.
This theory is neo-Jamesian in arguing that bodily responses are central to emotions, yet it emphasizes the meaningfulness of emotions or the idea that emotions are about something, as is recognized by cognitive theories.
The novel claim of this theory is that conceptually-based cognition is unnecessary for such meaning. Rather the bodily changes themselves perceive the meaningful content of the emotion because of being causally triggered by certain situations.
In this respect, emotions are held to be analogous to faculties such as vision or touch, which provide information about the relation between the subject and the world in various ways.
Affective events theory is a communication-based theory developed by Howard M. Weiss and Russell Cropanzano , that looks at the causes, structures, and consequences of emotional experience especially in work contexts.
This theory suggests that emotions are influenced and caused by events which in turn influence attitudes and behaviors. Weiss and Daniel J.
A situated perspective on emotion, developed by Paul E. Griffiths and Andrea Scarantino, emphasizes the importance of external factors in the development and communication of emotion, drawing upon the situationism approach in psychology.
In contrast, a situationist perspective on emotion views emotion as the product of an organism investigating its environment, and observing the responses of other organisms.
Emotion stimulates the evolution of social relationships, acting as a signal to mediate the behavior of other organisms.
In some contexts, the expression of emotion both voluntary and involuntary could be seen as strategic moves in the transactions between different organisms.
The situated perspective on emotion states that conceptual thought is not an inherent part of emotion, since emotion is an action-oriented form of skillful engagement with the world.
Griffiths and Scarantino suggested that this perspective on emotion could be helpful in understanding phobias, as well as the emotions of infants and animals.
Emotions can motivate social interactions and relationships and therefore are directly related with basic physiology , particularly with the stress systems.
This is important because emotions are related to the anti-stress complex, with an oxytocin-attachment system, which plays a major role in bonding.
Emotional phenotype temperaments affect social connectedness and fitness in complex social systems Kurt Kortschal These characteristics are shared with other species and taxa and are due to the effects of genes and their continuous transmission.
Information that is encoded in the DNA sequences provides the blueprint for assembling proteins that make up our cells.
Zygotes require genetic information from their parental germ cells, and at every speciation event, heritable traits that have enabled its ancestor to survive and reproduce successfully are passed down along with new traits that could be potentially beneficial to the offspring.
In the five million years since the lineages leading to modern humans and chimpanzees split, only about 1. This suggests that everything that separates us from chimpanzees must be encoded in that very small amount of DNA, including our behaviors.
Students that study animal behaviors have only identified intraspecific examples of gene-dependent behavioral phenotypes.
In voles Microtus spp. Another potential example with behavioral differences is the FOCP2 gene, which is involved in neural circuitry handling speech and language Vargha-Khadem et al.
Its present form in humans differed from that of the chimpanzees by only a few mutations and has been present for about , years, coinciding with the beginning of modern humans Enard et al.
Speech, language, and social organization are all part of the basis for emotions. Based on discoveries made through neural mapping of the limbic system , the neurobiological explanation of human emotion is that emotion is a pleasant or unpleasant mental state organized in the limbic system of the mammalian brain.
Emotions can likely be mediated by pheromones see fear. For example, the emotion of love is proposed to be the expression of paleocircuits of the mammalian brain specifically, modules of the cingulate gyrus which facilitate the care, feeding, and grooming of offspring.
Paleocircuits are neural platforms for bodily expression configured before the advent of cortical circuits for speech.
They consist of pre-configured pathways or networks of nerve cells in the forebrain , brain stem and spinal cord. The motor centers of reptiles react to sensory cues of vision, sound, touch, chemical, gravity, and motion with pre-set body movements and programmed postures.
With the arrival of night-active mammals , smell replaced vision as the dominant sense, and a different way of responding arose from the olfactory sense, which is proposed to have developed into mammalian emotion and emotional memory.
The mammalian brain invested heavily in olfaction to succeed at night as reptiles slept — one explanation for why olfactory lobes in mammalian brains are proportionally larger than in the reptiles.
These odor pathways gradually formed the neural blueprint for what was later to become our limbic brain. Emotions are thought to be related to certain activities in brain areas that direct our attention, motivate our behavior, and determine the significance of what is going on around us.
Pioneering work by Broca , Papez , and MacLean suggested that emotion is related to a group of structures in the center of the brain called the limbic system , which includes the hypothalamus , cingulate cortex , hippocampi , and other structures.
More recent research has shown that some of these limbic structures are not as directly related to emotion as others are while some non-limbic structures have been found to be of greater emotional relevance.
A model was presented where the signal substances form the axes of a coordinate system, and the eight basic emotions according to Silvan Tomkins are placed in the eight corners.
Anger is, according to the model, for example produced by the combination of low serotonin, high dopamine and high noradrenaline.
There is ample evidence that the left prefrontal cortex is activated by stimuli that cause positive approach. This was demonstrated for moderately attractive visual stimuli  and replicated and extended to include negative stimuli.
Two neurobiological models of emotion in the prefrontal cortex made opposing predictions. The Valence Model predicted that anger, a negative emotion, would activate the right prefrontal cortex.
The Direction Model predicted that anger, an approach emotion, would activate the left prefrontal cortex. The second model was supported.
This still left open the question of whether the opposite of approach in the prefrontal cortex is better described as moving away Direction Model , as unmoving but with strength and resistance Movement Model , or as unmoving with passive yielding Action Tendency Model.
Support for the Action Tendency Model passivity related to right prefrontal activity comes from research on shyness  and research on behavioral inhibition.
Another neurological approach proposed by Bud Craig in distinguishes two classes of emotion: Derek Denton calls the latter "primordial emotions" and defines them as "the subjective element of the instincts, which are the genetically programmed behavior patterns which contrive homeostasis.
They include thirst, hunger for air, hunger for food, pain and hunger for specific minerals etc. There are two constituents of a primordial emotion--the specific sensation which when severe may be imperious, and the compelling intention for gratification by a consummatory act.
He has said that the amygdala may release hormones due to a trigger such as an innate reaction to seeing a snake , but " then we elaborate it through cognitive and conscious processes.
Lisa Feldman Barrett highlights differences in emotions between different cultures,  and says that emotions such as anxiety " are not triggered; you create them.
They emerge as a combination of the physical properties of your body, a flexible brain that wires itself to whatever environment it develops in, and your culture and upbringing, which provide that environment.
Many different disciplines have produced work on the emotions. Human sciences study the role of emotions in mental processes, disorders, and neural mechanisms.
Nursing studies emotions as part of its approach to the provision of holistic health care to humans. Psychology examines emotions from a scientific perspective by treating them as mental processes and behavior and they explore the underlying physiological and neurological processes.
In neuroscience sub-fields such as social neuroscience and affective neuroscience , scientists study the neural mechanisms of emotion by combining neuroscience with the psychological study of personality, emotion, and mood.
In linguistics , the expression of emotion may change to the meaning of sounds. In education , the role of emotions in relation to learning is examined.
Social sciences often examine emotion for the role that it plays in human culture and social interactions. In sociology , emotions are examined for the role they play in human society, social patterns and interactions, and culture.
In anthropology , the study of humanity, scholars use ethnography to undertake contextual analyses and cross-cultural comparisons of a range of human activities.
Some anthropology studies examine the role of emotions in human activities. In the field of communication sciences , critical organizational scholars have examined the role of emotions in organizations, from the perspectives of managers, employees, and even customers.
The University of Queensland hosts EmoNet,  an e-mail distribution list representing a network of academics that facilitates scholarly discussion of all matters relating to the study of emotion in organizational settings.
The list was established in January and has over members from across the globe. In economics , the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, emotions are analyzed in some sub-fields of microeconomics, in order to assess the role of emotions on purchase decision-making and risk perception.
In criminology , a social science approach to the study of crime, scholars often draw on behavioral sciences, sociology, and psychology; emotions are examined in criminology issues such as anomie theory and studies of "toughness," aggressive behavior, and hooliganism.
In political science , emotions are examined in a number of sub-fields, such as the analysis of voter decision-making.
In philosophy , emotions are studied in sub-fields such as ethics , the philosophy of art for example, sensory—emotional values, and matters of taste and sentimentality , and the philosophy of music see also Music and emotion.
In history , scholars examine documents and other sources to interpret and analyze past activities; speculation on the emotional state of the authors of historical documents is one of the tools of interpretation.
In literature and film-making, the expression of emotion is the cornerstone of genres such as drama, melodrama, and romance. In communication studies , scholars study the role that emotion plays in the dissemination of ideas and messages.
Emotion is also studied in non-human animals in ethology , a branch of zoology which focuses on the scientific study of animal behavior.
Ethology is a combination of laboratory and field science, with strong ties to ecology and evolution. Ethologists often study one type of behavior for example, aggression in a number of unrelated animals.
The history of emotions has become an increasingly popular topic recently, with some scholars [ who? Historians, like other social scientists, assume that emotions, feelings and their expressions are regulated in different ways by both different cultures and different historical times, and the constructivist school of history claims even that some sentiments and meta-emotions , for example Schadenfreude , are learnt and not only regulated by culture.
Historians of emotion trace and analyse the changing norms and rules of feeling, while examining emotional regimes, codes, and lexicons from social, cultural, or political history perspectives.
Others focus on the history of medicine , science , or psychology. What somebody can and may feel and show in a given situation, towards certain people or things, depends on social norms and rules; thus historically variable and open to change.
Furthermore, research in historical trauma suggests that some traumatic emotions can be passed on from parents to offspring to second and even third generation, presented as examples of transgenerational trauma.
A common way in which emotions are conceptualized in sociology is in terms of the multidimensional characteristics including cultural or emotional labels for example, anger, pride, fear, happiness , physiological changes for example, increased perspiration, changes in pulse rate , expressive facial and body movements for example, smiling, frowning, baring teeth , and appraisals of situational cues.
When people enter a situation or encounter with certain expectations for how the encounter should unfold, they will experience different emotions depending on the extent to which expectations for Self, other and situation are met or not met.
People can also provide positive or negative sanctions directed at Self or other which also trigger different emotional experiences in individuals.
Turner analyzed a wide range of emotion theories across different fields of research including sociology, psychology, evolutionary science, and neuroscience.
Based on this analysis, he identified four emotions that all researchers consider being founded on human neurology including assertive-anger, aversion-fear, satisfaction-happiness, and disappointment-sadness.
These four categories are called primary emotions and there is some agreement amongst researchers that these primary emotions become combined to produce more elaborate and complex emotional experiences.
Emotions can also be experienced at different levels of intensity so that feelings of concern are a low-intensity variation of the primary emotion aversion-fear whereas depression is a higher intensity variant.
Attempts are frequently made to regulate emotion according to the conventions of the society and the situation based on many sometimes conflicting demands and expectations which originate from various entities.
Some cultures encourage or discourage happiness, sadness, or jealousy, and the free expression of the emotion of disgust is considered socially unacceptable in most cultures.
Some social institutions are seen as based on certain emotion, such as love in the case of contemporary institution of marriage. In advertising, such as health campaigns and political messages, emotional appeals are commonly found.
Recent examples include no-smoking health campaigns and political campaigns emphasizing the fear of terrorism.
Sociological attention to emotion has varied over time. He explained how the heightened state of emotional energy achieved during totemic rituals transported individuals above themselves giving them the sense that they were in the presence of a higher power, a force, that was embedded in the sacred objects that were worshipped.
These feelings of exaltation, he argued, ultimately lead people to believe that there were forces that governed sacred objects.
In the s, sociologists focused on different aspects of specific emotions and how these emotions were socially relevant. For Cooley ,  pride and shame were the most important emotions that drive people to take various social actions.
During every encounter, he proposed that we monitor ourselves through the "looking glass" that the gestures and reactions of others provide.
Depending on these reactions, we either experience pride or shame and this results in particular paths of action. Retzinger  conducted studies of married couples who experienced cycles of rage and shame.
The formation or disruption of social bonds is dependent on the emotions that people experience during interactions.
Based on interaction ritual theory, we experience different levels or intensities of emotional energy during face-to-face interactions.
Emotional energy is considered to be a feeling of confidence to take action and a boldness that one experiences when they are charged up from the collective effervescence generated during group gatherings that reach high levels of intensity.
These studies show that learning subjects like science can be understood in terms of classroom interaction rituals that generate emotional energy and collective states of emotional arousal like emotional climate.
Apart from interaction ritual traditions of the sociology of emotion, other approaches have been classed into one of 6 other categories Turner, including:.
This list provides a general overview of different traditions in the sociology of emotion that sometimes conceptualise emotion in different ways and at other times in complementary ways.
Many of these different approaches were synthesized by Turner in his sociological theory of human emotions in an attempt to produce one comprehensive sociological account that draws on developments from many of the above traditions.
Emotion regulation refers to the cognitive and behavioral strategies people use to influence their own emotional experience.
Cognitively oriented schools approach them via their cognitive components, such as rational emotive behavior therapy. Yet others approach emotions via symbolic movement and facial expression components like in contemporary Gestalt therapy.
Research on emotions reveals the strong presence of cross-cultural differences in emotional reactions and that emotional reactions are likely to be culture-specific.
This implies the need to comprehend the current emotional state, mental disposition or other behavioral motivation of a target audience located in a different culture, basically founded on its national political, social, economic, and psychological peculiarities but also subject to the influence of circumstances and events.
In the s, research in computer science, engineering, psychology and neuroscience has been aimed at developing devices that recognize human affect display and model emotions.
It is an interdisciplinary field spanning computer sciences , psychology , and cognitive science. The data gathered is analogous to the cues humans use to perceive emotions in others.
Another area within affective computing is the design of computational devices proposed to exhibit either innate emotional capabilities or that are capable of convincingly simulating emotions.
The detection and processing of facial expression or body gestures is achieved through detectors and sensors. In the late 19th century, the most influential theorists were William James — and Carl Lange — Lange was a Danish physician and psychologist.
Working independently, they developed the James—Lange theory , a hypothesis on the origin and nature of emotions. The theory states that within human beings, as a response to experiences in the world, the autonomic nervous system creates physiological events such as muscular tension, a rise in heart rate, perspiration, and dryness of the mouth.
Emotions, then, are feelings which come about as a result of these physiological changes, rather than being their cause. Silvan Tomkins — developed the Affect theory and Script theory.
The Affect theory introduced the concept of basic emotions, and was based on the idea that the dominance of the emotion, which he called the affected system, was the motivating force in human life.
Some of the most influential theorists on emotion from the 20th century have died in the last decade. They include Magda B. Arnold — , an American psychologist who developed the appraisal theory of emotions;  Richard Lazarus — , an American psychologist who specialized in emotion and stress, especially in relation to cognition; Herbert A.
Simon — , who included emotions into decision making and artificial intelligence; Robert Plutchik — , an American psychologist who developed a psychoevolutionary theory of emotion;  Robert Zajonc — a Polish—American social psychologist who specialized in social and cognitive processes such as social facilitation; Robert C.
Solomon — , an American philosopher who contributed to the theories on the philosophy of emotions with books such as What Is An Emotion?: Classic and Contemporary Readings Oxford, ; Peter Goldie — , a British philosopher who specialized in ethics, aesthetics, emotion, mood and character; Nico Frijda — , a Dutch psychologist who advanced the theory that human emotions serve to promote a tendency to undertake actions that are appropriate in the circumstances, detailed in his book The Emotions ; Jaak Panksepp , an Estonian-born American psychologist, psychobiologist, neuroscientist and pioneer in affective neuroscience.
Influential theorists who are still active include the following psychologists, neurologists, philosophers, and sociologists:.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Emotion disambiguation. For other uses, see Emotional disambiguation. Functional accounts of emotion.
Evolution of emotion and Evolutionary psychology. Two-factor theory of emotion. This section includes a list of references , related reading or external links , but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations.
Please help to improve this section by introducing more precise citations. December Learn how and when to remove this template message. Emotions portal Affect measures Affective forecasting Emoticons Emotion and memory Emotion Review Emotional intelligence Emotions in virtual communication Empathy Facial feedback hypothesis Fuzzy-trace theory Group emotion Neuroendocrinology Social emotion Social sharing of emotions Two-factor theory of emotion Yerkes—Dodson law.
Our emotional feelings reflect our ability to subjectively experience certain states of the nervous system. The Nature of emotion: AWE Tuning Lowering springs.
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